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July 2020

Whole-cell pertussis vaccine in early infancy for the prevention of allergy

This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of whole‐cell pertussis (wP) vaccinations in comparison to acellular pertussis (aP) vaccinations in early infancy for the prevention of atopic diseases in children.

Asthma Published research Whooping Cough Infectious Diseases Human Immunology Ear Health Vaccine Trials Group Subsite: Wesfarmers Centre of Vaccines and Infectious Diseases
April 2021

Enhanced Neutralizing Antibody Responses to Rhinovirus C and Age-Dependent Patterns of Infection

Rhinovirus (RV) C can cause asymptomatic infection and respiratory illnesses ranging from the common cold to severe wheezing. The aim was to identify how age and other individual-level factors are associated with susceptibility to RV-C illnesses. Longitudinal data from the COAST (Childhood Origins of Asthma) birth cohort study were analyzed to determine relationships between age and RV-C infections. Neutralizing antibodies specific for RV-A and RV-C (three types each) were determined using a novel PCR-based assay.

Published research Infectious Diseases Human Immunology
March 2021

The intersect of genetics, environment, and microbiota in asthma-perspectives and challenges

In asthma, a significant portion of the interaction between genetics and environment occurs through microbiota. The proposed mechanisms behind this interaction are complex and at times contradictory. This review covers recent developments in our understanding of this interaction: the "microbial hypothesis" and the "farm effect"; the role of endotoxin and genetic variation in pattern recognition systems; the interaction with allergen exposure; the additional involvement of host gut and airway microbiota; the role of viral respiratory infections in interaction with the 17q21 and CDHR3 genetic loci; and the importance of in utero and early-life timing of exposures.

Asthma Published research Human Immunology
January 2021

Time spent outdoors through childhood and adolescence - assessed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration - and risk of myopia at 20 years

To investigate the relationship between time spent outdoors, at particular ages in childhood and adolescence, and myopia status in young adulthood using serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration as a biomarker of time spent outdoors. Participants of the Raine Study Generation 2 cohort had 25(OH)D concentrations measured at the 6-, 14-, 17- and 20-year follow-ups. Participants underwent cycloplegic autorefraction at age 20 years, and myopia was defined as a mean spherical equivalent -0.50 dioptres or more myopic. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between risk of myopia at age 20 years and age-specific 25(OH)D concentrations. Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyse trajectory of 25(OH)D concentrations from 6 to 20 years.

Published research Vitamin D and Sunlight Human Immunology